- The evolution of English from its origins to the present day
- The spread and classification of Englishes around the world
- The ecology and evolution of new Englishes
- English, culture and education
- English as a Lingua Franca (ELF)




  1. Familiarise students with varieties of English world-wide and their development and classification in both historical and contemporary eras;
  2. Lead students to identify and critically reflect on relevant and fundamental issues and debates in World Englishes, including concepts such as ‘linguistic imperialism’ , ‘nativeness’ and ownership, issues of ideology, attitudes and identity, pedagogy and planning; and in so doing:
  3. Nurture students capable of making informed, intelligent and significant contributions to the ongoing debate surrounding English in its international contexts.




Lectures; in-class debates, discussion and presentations.




100% coursework, comprising:

Group and/or individual presentations
Final paper




Jenkins, Jennifer. 2009. World Englishes: A Resource Book for Students. 2nd ed. Routledge.
The course will draw on the following academic works (amongst others):
Baugh, A.C. & Cable, T. (2012) A History of the English language. London: Routledge.
Crystal, D. (2003) English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bailey, R. (2004). American English: its origins and history. In E. Finegan & J. R. Rickford (eds.), Language in the USA: Themes for the Twenty-First century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 3-17.
Blair, D., & Collins, P. (eds.) (2001). English in Australia. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.
Bolton K. (2003) Chinese Englishes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bruthiaux, P. (2003). Squaring the circles: issues in modeling English worldwide. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 13(2). 159-78.
Chen, K (2015) Styling bilinguals: Analyzing structurally distinctive code-switching styles in Hong Kong. In G. Stell and K. Yakpo (eds.) Code-switching at the crossroads between structural and socio-linguistic perspectives. 163-183. Germany: Mouton de Gruyter.
Gupta, A. F. (2010) Standard Singapore English revisited. In L. Lim, A. Pakir & L. Wee (eds.) English in Singapore: Modernity and Management. (Asian Englishes Today.) Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. 57-89.
Jenkins, J. (2007) English as a Lingua Franca: Attitude and Identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kachru, B. (1990) The Alchemy of English: The Spread, Functions, and Models of Non-native Englishes (English in the Global Context). Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Kachru, B. (ed.) (1992) The Other Tongue: English Across Cultures. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Kortmann B. & Upton C. (eds.) (2008) Varieties of English: The British Isles. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Lisa, L & Ansaldo, U. (2015) Languages in Contact: Key Topics in Sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mauranen, A. (2012) Exploring ELF: Academic English shaped by Non-Native Speakers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Milroy J. & Milroy, L. (1999) Authority in Language: Investigating Standard English. London: Routledge.
Phillipson, R. (1992) Linguistic Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schneider, E (2007) Postcolonial English: Varieties around the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Seidlhofer, B. (2011) Understanding English as a Lingua Franca. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Spolsky, B. (ed.) (2012) The Cambridge Handbook of Language Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Weston, D. (2011) Gibraltar’s position in the Dynamic Model of Postcolonial English Development. English World-Wide 32(3). 338-367.
Weston, Daniel. (2016) “Bits”, “Chunks” and “Channel-switching”: perceptions of Cantonese-English code-switching. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 44(2). 384-414.



Last updated: 3 July 2019